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Peanut Butter Diet

Definition

The peanut butter diet is a diet plan developed by Holly McCord, nutrition editor of Prevention magazine, a popular health and nutrition magazine. The diet allows consumers to enjoy peanut butter every day while still achieving their weight loss goals. The diet is appealing because it offers a wide variety of nutrients, while allowing the dieter to enjoy peanut butter, a satisfying “comfort” food.

The diet promotes weight loss, lower cholesterol, reduced risk of heart disease, and diabetes for consumers who stay on the meal plan. The eating plan consists of two separate caloric intakes, one for men (2,200 calories per day) and one for women (1,500 calories per day).

Some consumers have reported that the diet is easier to follow than other popular diet plans. Because peanut butter tastes good and is simple to add to daily menus, dieters have no difficulty staying on the plan and being consistent. In the year 2000, Kraft Foods conducted a survey to determine which foods Americans are regularly stocking and consuming. Out of 100 common food items, peanut butter came in fourth.

Eggs, granulated sugar, and flour came in first, second, and third place respectively.

Origins

The roots of the peanut butter diet can be traced to research that was conducted at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Nutrition researchers Kathy McManus and Frank Sacks, M.D. worked with overweight patients over several years. During their meetings with patients, they discovered that some overweight individuals were unsuccessful at keeping weight off for any length of time when following low-fat diet plans.

Later in their careers, McManus and Dr. Sacks conducted research that compared the effects of calorie-controlled moderate-fat and low-fat diets in obese adults. The result of their research was surprising. Their studies suggested that calorie-controlled diet plans containing moderate amounts of fat, including peanut butter, may be a factor in losing weight.

In their study, McManus and Dr. Sacks assigned 101 men and women whose average weight was 200 pounds, to one of two study groups. One group was told to limit their fate intake to only 20% of their calories. The individuals in the second group had a daily fat allowance of 35%. The participants in the 35% group ate fat that came from foods that are rich in monounsaturated fat. These foods include peanut butter, olive oil, nuts, and avocados. Both study groups limited their intake of foods that were high in saturated fat such as cheese, butter, or red meats. In addition, both study groups were given the same caloric intake: women ate 1,200 calories and men ate 1,500 calories per day.

The study results were informative. Both groups lost an average of 11 pounds during the first six weeks. However, twice as many moderate-fat consumers (Peanut butter dieters) were able to stay with the diet, and were able to maintain their weight loss for a period of 18 weeks. On the other hand, the low-fat dieters had twice the amount of participants who dropped out, and the remaining participants regained about five pounds. McManus suggested that the Peanut Butter Dieters were more successful because they enjoyed their food choices more than the moderate-fat group, and that individuals can stick to a diet plan only if they feel satisfied by the foods they are consuming.

Another study suggested that eating peanut butter appeared to be almost twice as good for your heart compared to low-fat diets. A study conducted by scientists at Pennsylvania State University proved that

KEY TERMS

Diabetes—A disease that causes an abnormally high level of glucose (sugar), to build up in the blood.

Glycemic Index (GI)— An index which ranks foods that contain carbohydrates to the effect they have on blood sugar levels after the food is consumed.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol—A type of cholesterol in the blood that is considered to be good for the body. The higher the HDL level, the lower the risk of coronary artery disease.

Kidney stones—A small, hard mass in the kidney that forms from chemical deposits. Kidney stones can be extremely painful and are often difficult to diagnose.

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol—A type of cholesterol in the blood that is considered to be bad for the body. High levels of LDL is a risk factor for heart disease.

Monounsaturated fat—This type of fat is found in olive, peanut, and canola oil. It is also found in nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Obese—Increased body weight caused by an excessive accumulation of fat.

Saturated fat—The type of fat that raises bad cholesterol and is linked to higher levels of cholesterol, heart disease, and other chronic diseases.

Syndrome X—A group of common disorders that produce a high risk of cardiac disease.

Total cholesterol—The total amount of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made in the body and present in many foods.

Triglycerides—Triglycerides are produced by the body and are the major form of fat.

diets that were high in peanuts and rich in monounsa-turated fat were just as effective as low-fat diets at lowering total cholesterol and “bad” LDL cholesterol. In addition, a very low-fat diet actually raised triglycerides (possibly as a result of very high carbohydrate intakes), a type of fat in the bloodstream and fat tissue, by 11%. Conversely, the Peanut butter diet actually lowered triglyceride levels by 13%. High amounts of triglycerides are associated with increased risk of diseases such as metabolic syndrome and heart disease. The net result of the study revealed that the Peanut Butter Diet lowered heart disease risk by 21%, while the low-fat diet lowered risk by only 12%.

Description

The peanut butter diet is largely based on portion control. Men are allowed three servings of peanut butter per day, while women can consume two servings per day. For this diet, a serving is two level tablespoons of peanut butter.

Consumers need not measure peanut butter with a level measuring tablespoon, since this can be time consuming and impractical if travel interferes. The book recommends simply placing a ping-pong ball in the kitchen. Then, consumers use a regular kitchen spoon to remove peanut butter from the jar. As long as the amount of peanut butter on the spoon is no larger than a ping-pong ball, this is considered an acceptable portion. However, it is recommended that dieters measure two tablespoons of peanut butter at least once or twice to familiarize themselves with appropriate portion size. Dieters may choose any brand of peanut butter that appeals to them. They may choose either natural peanut butter brands or emulsified varieties.

The diet plan is very simple. Consumers include peanut butter in two of their meals or snacks in convenient ways, such as spreading it on toaster waffles or an English muffin. It is also recommended that consumers take a 300- to 500-mg calcium supplement to meet daily calcium requirements. The Peanut butter diet book includes several recipes and four weeks of meal plans for both men and women. The book also includes recipes for several desserts, including s’mores, a favorite childhood treat, or a peanut butter sundae. The inclusion of desserts makes the diet extremely easy to follow, prevents feelings of deprivation, and helps dieters integrate everyday foods in their diet. The menu plans and recipes are the mainstay of this diet plan and are extensively discussed in the Peanut butter diet book.

A typical menu plan is outlined below:

  • Breakfast: Peanut Butter Maple Syrup Waffles1 cup fat-free milk, plain or in cafe latte
  • Lunch: Tuna salad: Combine half of a 6-oz can drained, water-packed, white albacore tuna with 2 tsp reduced-calorie mayonnaise, 1/2 tsp Dijon mustard, and 2 Tbsp finely chopped carrots and celery. Optional: 1 tsp chopped pickles. 1 1/2 cups baby carrots, red bell pepper strips 3/4 cup calcium-enriched V-8 juice
  • Snack: Orange, pear, or other fruit of your choice
  • Dinner: Tahitian Chicken with Peanut Butter Mango Sauce served over 1/2 cup cooked rice (preferably brown basmati)1/2 cup cooked spinach
  • Evening Treat: 1 1/2 inch-thick slice of angel food cake topped with 11/2 cups coarsely mashed strawberries

The author of the peanut butter diet also recommends getting plenty of “Vitamin X,” also known as exercise or regular physical activity. The plan encourages consumers to exercise as much as possible, but states that even 10 or 15 minutes of activity is better than doing no exercise at all. The Peanut Butter Diet book includes a chart of typical exercises and the number of calories burned during each activity. The book also features some strength training moves, which are called “The Basic Six.” These six movements work all of the body’s major muscle groups. Exercises in the Basic Six include squats, overhead press, biceps curls, and other basic movements.

Function

In 2002, updated guidelines were released from the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In their report, the NCEP states that many changes in the way Americans prevent and treat heart disease must occur in order for them to stay healthy. The creator of the Peanut butter diet states that many of these dietary changes are addressed within the Peanut butter diet’s guidelines.

The NCEP guidelines suggest that consumers become aware of a set of symptoms referred to as Syndrome X. This cluster of symptoms may dramatically increase the risk of heart attack. The Peanut butter diet addresses many of these concerns due to the presence of heart-healthy fats in peanut butter.

Another suggestion raised in the NCEP report is for consumers to follow a nutrition plan that is low in saturated fat. The Peanut butter diet accomplishes this because it allows up to 35% of calories to come from total fat, provided that fat come from mostly unsatu-rated sources.

The NCEP suggests that consumers aim to reduce high or borderline high triglycerides. The Peanut Butter Diet meets this criterion, since studies show that diets rich in peanut butter aid in reducing triglyceride levels.

Finally, the NCEP report stated that consumers should attempt to increase HDL (this type of cholesterol helps reduce LDL, the unhealthy type of cholesterol) levels. According to new guidelines, HDL levels should be at least 40 mg/dL. Fortunately, research suggests that diets rich in peanut butter do not reduce HDL levels as do low–fat diets.

Benefits

Peanuts and peanut butter contain more protein than any other nut or legume. Because peanut butter contains mainly monounsaturated and polyunsatu-rated fats, it is thought to be a heart-healthy food that may reduce cholesterol and the risk of coronary artery disease when included in a healthy diet.

When peanut butter is added to a meal or food containing carbohydrate, it lowers the overall Glyce-mic Index of the meal or snack. The Glycemic Index was developed in the early 1980s by researchers at the University of Toronto. The index ranks foods that contain carbohydrates to the effect they have on blood sugar levels after the food is consumed. Each food is then assigned a number. Foods that are rank high on the GI should be eaten in moderation since these foods tend to cause a spike in blood sugar levels. This increase causes insulin levels to increase. Too much insulin may result in high blood pressure and increased risk of heart disease.

Not only is peanut butter a comfort food, it is also loaded with nutrients. Peanut butter is rich in folate, zinc, magnesium, potassium, copper and vitamin E. It also contains two naturally-occurring compounds called resveratrol and beta-sitosterol. These compounds are believed to fight cancer and combat heart disease. Peanut butter also contains fiber, which encourages bowel regularity and helps boost weight loss efforts.

The Peanut butter diet is effortless to follow. Recipes provided in the book are plentiful, informative, and easy for the average consumer to prepare. Peanut butter can be added to protein drinks, carbohydrates such as toast, waffles, muffins, and oatmeal, and can be combined with fruit and other foods to maximize variety and prevent boredom. The Peanut butter diet can easily be followed if a person travels a great deal. Peanut butter is readily available and is easily stored in plastic containers or in its original jar. This allows the dieter to plan meals and customize menus for ultimate flexibility.

Precautions

This diet plan is not recommended for everyone. As always, consumers should check with their physician before starting any type of diet or nutrition program. It is important for patients to avoid the diet if they are allergic to peanuts. If the patient is an older adult and/or has swallowing problems, the diet should be avoided since peanut butter may become caught in the throat. Individuals with high triglycerides should also avoid the diet or check with a physician before starting the diet plan. Finally, pregnant and/or breastfeeding women with a history of allergies should also check with their doctors before choosing this diet. The diet may cause a sensitization to peanut butter in new-borns or infants.

QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR

  • Is this diet appropriate for me?
  • How long should I follow this diet?
  • Are there any special precautions I should follow?
  • Are there any drug precautions I should be aware of while following this diet?
  • I am allergic to peanuts. Can I eat other nut butters instead of peanut butter?
  • How much exercise should I do each week in conjunction with this diet?
  • How often should I weigh myself while following this diet?
  • If I become bored on this diet, what can I do to add variety?
  • Do you agree with the recommended caloric intake for men (1500) and women (1200)?
  • I have high triglycerides. Is this diet safe for me to follow?

Risks

If the patient has any other serious health concerns, consultation with a physician is critical before starting this or any diet plan. Patients should read the precautions section of this diet to make sure that the diet is appropriate for them. As stated previously, pregnant and/or breastfeeding women with a history of allergies should always consult with their physician before starting the Peanut butter diet. An increased sensitization to peanuts may occur in newborns or infants.

General Acceptance

No formal studies or data exist regarding the general acceptance of this diet. The diet was featured extensively in Prevention Magazine publications, suggesting that subscribers and readers may have been more likely to try the diet compared to non-subscribers and non-readers.

Research

Research was conducted by Prevention Magazine to determine the effectiveness of the Peanut butter diet. An article entitled “Fight Fat with Peanut Butter-Real Life Success Stories” was featured in the November 2002 issue of Prevention Magazine. Successful participants were featured who lost up to 27 pounds and are maintaining the loss by following the Peanut butter diet during a field trial. As a group, Colleen Pierre (a registered dietitian and associate professor of nutrition at Johns Hopkins University) and her colleagues lost a total of 140 pounds over five months. None of the participants became bored with the diet or with eating peanut butter. The study participants were also pleased to find that their cholesterol levels dropped while they were on the diet. This added benefit underscores the study conducted by the Pennsylvania State University, whose research suggested that when included in a healthy diet, peanuts and peanut butter lowers bad LDL an! d total cholesterol by 14 and 11%.

No other formal research has been conducted on the Peanut butter diet.

BOOKS

McCord, Holly. The Peanut Butter Diet . Emmaus, PA: Rodale, Inc., 2001.

PERIODICALS

Alper, C. M., and R. D. Mattes. “Peanut Consumption Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Healthy Adults.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22, no. 2 (2003): 133–141.

McManus, K and F. Sacks. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Moderate–Fat, Low–Energy Diet Compared with a Low–Fat, Low–Energy Diet for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults.” International Journal of Obesity 25 (Oct 4, 2001): 1503–1511.

National Cholesterol Education Program. “Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Panel III) Final Report.” Circulation 106, no. 25 (Dec 17, 2002): 3143–421.

Prevention Magazine Staff. “Our Amazing Peanut Butter Diet.” Prevention Available online at http://www.prevention.com/article/0,5778,s1-4-121-48-1290-1,00.html.

Reaven, G. M. “Diet and Syndrome X” Curr Artheroscler Rep 2 (2000): 503–507.

ORGANIZATIONS

The Peanut Institute. P.O. Box 70157, Albany, Georgia 31708. Telephone: 1-(229) 888-0216. Website: <http://www.peanut-institute.org>.

Sydney University Glycemic Index Research Service, Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, Sydney University, NSW 2006, Australia. Website: <http://theglycemicindex.com>.

Deborah L. Nurmi, MS


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